当使用psql连接数据库之后,可以通过一些常见命令来查询数据的信息或获取帮助。这些命令以反斜杠开通,比如“\d”,这样的命令被称作元命令——meta-command,它们由psql进行处理。

查看数据库表、视图、序列

使用“\d”命令可以查看数据的所有表、视图和序列。相关执行代码如下:

postgreql命令行交互(psql)常见命令插图

在“\d”命令后面可添加表名,来查看对应表的具体定义:

postgreql命令行交互(psql)常见命令插图(1)

查看表空间

使用“\db”命令可以查看postgresql数据库的表空间信息:

postgreql命令行交互(psql)常见命令插图(2)

查看postgresql所支持的命令

使用“\?”可以用来查看postgresql所支持的所有命令,执行及结果如下:

iecs=# \?
General
  \copyright             show PostgreSQL usage and distribution terms
  \errverbose            show most recent error message at maximum verbosity
  \g [FILE] or ;         execute query (and send results to file or |pipe)
  \gexec                 execute query, then execute each value in its result
  \gset [PREFIX]         execute query and store results in psql variables
  \q                     quit psql
  \crosstabview [COLUMNS] execute query and display results in crosstab
  \watch [SEC]           execute query every SEC seconds

Help
  \? [commands]          show help on backslash commands
  \? options             show help on psql command-line options
  \? variables           show help on special variables
  \h [NAME]              help on syntax of SQL commands, * for all commands

Query Buffer
  \e [FILE] [LINE]       edit the query buffer (or file) with external editor
  \ef [FUNCNAME [LINE]]  edit function definition with external editor
  \ev [VIEWNAME [LINE]]  edit view definition with external editor
  \p                     show the contents of the query buffer
  \r                     reset (clear) the query buffer
  \s [FILE]              display history or save it to file
  \w FILE                write query buffer to file

Input/Output
  \copy ...              perform SQL COPY with data stream to the client host
  \echo [STRING]         write string to standard output
  \i FILE                execute commands from file
  \ir FILE               as \i, but relative to location of current script
  \o [FILE]              send all query results to file or |pipe
  \qecho [STRING]        write string to query output stream (see \o)

Informational
  (options: S = show system objects, + = additional detail)
  \d[S+]                 list tables, views, and sequences
  \d[S+]  NAME           describe table, view, sequence, or index
  \da[S]  [PATTERN]      list aggregates
  \dA[+]  [PATTERN]      list access methods
  \db[+]  [PATTERN]      list tablespaces
  \dc[S+] [PATTERN]      list conversions
  \dC[+]  [PATTERN]      list casts
  \dd[S]  [PATTERN]      show object descriptions not displayed elsewhere
  \ddp    [PATTERN]      list default privileges
  \dD[S+] [PATTERN]      list domains
  \det[+] [PATTERN]      list foreign tables
  \des[+] [PATTERN]      list foreign servers
  \deu[+] [PATTERN]      list user mappings
  \dew[+] [PATTERN]      list foreign-data wrappers
  \df[antw][S+] [PATRN]  list [only agg/normal/trigger/window] functions
  \dF[+]  [PATTERN]      list text search configurations
  \dFd[+] [PATTERN]      list text search dictionaries
  \dFp[+] [PATTERN]      list text search parsers
  \dFt[+] [PATTERN]      list text search templates
  \dg[S+] [PATTERN]      list roles
  \di[S+] [PATTERN]      list indexes
  \dl                    list large objects, same as \lo_list
  \dL[S+] [PATTERN]      list procedural languages
  \dm[S+] [PATTERN]      list materialized views
  \dn[S+] [PATTERN]      list schemas
  \do[S]  [PATTERN]      list operators
  \dO[S+] [PATTERN]      list collations
  \dp     [PATTERN]      list table, view, and sequence access privileges
  \drds [PATRN1 [PATRN2]] list per-database role settings
  \ds[S+] [PATTERN]      list sequences


postgreql命令行交互(psql)常见命令插图(3)

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